The house made of wood

2020/4/14

Buildings produce a huge amount of carbon. Using more wood would be greener

The second little pig was unlucky. He built his house from sticks. It was blown away by a huffing, puffing wolf, which promptly gobbled him up. His brother, by contrast, built a wolf- proof house from bricks. The fairy tale could have been written by a flack for the construction industry, which strongly favours brick, concrete and steel. However, in the real world it would help reduce pollution and slow global warming if more builders copied the wood-loving second pig.

第二只小猪倒霉。他用木棍筑房子。一头喘着气,喘气的狼把它吹走了,狼立刻把他吞噬了。相比之下,他的兄弟用砖建造了防狼房屋。这个童话本来可以由建筑业的人写的,而建筑业强烈青睐砖,混凝土和钢。但是,在现实世界中,如果更多的建筑商模仿喜欢木材的第二头猪,将有助于减少污染并减缓全球变暖。

In 2015 world leaders meeting in Paris agreed to move towards zero net greenhouse-gas emissions in the second half of this century. That is a tall order, and the building industry makes iteven taller. Cement-making alone produces 6% of the world’s carbon emissions. Steel, half of which goes into buildings, accounts for another 8%. If you factor in all of the energy that goes into lighting, heating and cooling homes and offices, the world’s buildings start to look like a giant environmental problem.

2015年,在巴黎举行的世界各国领导人会议同意在本世纪下半叶将温室气体净排放量降至零。这是一个艰巨的任务,而建筑行业做到了更高。仅水泥生产就产生了世界6%的碳排放量。钢材占一半,其中一半用于建筑。如果您考虑所有的能量进入照明,供暖和供暖的家庭和办公室,世界各地的建筑物开始看起来像巨大的环境问题.

Governments in the rich world are now trying to promote greener behaviour by obliging developers to build new projects to “zero carbon” standards (see International section). From January 1st 2019 all new public-sector buildings in the European Union must be built to “nearly zero-energy” standards. All other types of buildings will follow in January 2021. Governments in eight further countries are being lobbied to introduce a similar policy.

富裕国家的政府现在正在努力促进绿色行为通过鼓励开发人员建立符合“零碳”标准的新项目(请参见“国际”部分)。从2019年1月1日起,必须在欧盟建造所有新的公共部门建筑物达到“几乎零能耗”的标准。其他所有类型的建筑物也将于2021年1月问世。另外八个国家的政府也被游说采取类似的政策。

promptly 迅速的;立即

gobble 狼吞虎咽的吃

proof 证据;证明

stick 刺;树木

brick 砖;砖块

fairy 故事中的小仙子

tale 故事中的历险记 f

lack 广告;宣传

oblige 强迫;迫使

lobby 门厅;大厅


2020/4/15

These standards are less green than they seem. Wind turbines and solar panels on top of buildings look good but are much less productive than wind and solar farms. And the standards only count the emissions from running a building, not those belched out when it was made. Those are thought to account for between 30% and 60% of the total over a structure’s lifetime.

这些标准比看起来的绿色少。建筑物顶部的风力涡轮机和太阳能电池板看起来不错,但生产力却不如风力和太阳能农场。而且标准仅计算建筑物运行产生的排放,而不计算建筑物建造时产生的排放。据认为,它们占整个结构寿命的30%至60%。

Buildings can become greener. They can use more recycled steel and can be prefabricated in off-site factories, greatly reducing lorry journeys. But no other building material has environ-mental credentials as exciting and overlooked as wood.

建筑物可以变得更加绿色。他们可以使用更多的再生钢,并且可以在异地工厂中进行预制,从而大大减少了卡车旅行的时间。但是没有其他建筑材料具有像木头一样令人兴奋和被忽视的环境证明。

The energy required to produce a laminated wooden beam is one-sixth of that required for a steel one of comparable strength. As trees take carbon out of the atmosphere when growing, wooden buildings contribute to negative emissions by storing the stuff. When a mature tree is cut down, a new one can be planted to replace it, capturing more carbon. After buildings are demolished, old beams and panels are easy to recycle into new structures. And for retrofitting older buildings to be more energy efficient, wood is a good insulator. A softwood window frame provides nearly 400 times as much insulation as a plain steel one of the same thickness and over a thousand times as much as an aluminium equivalent.

产生层压木梁所需的能量是强度相当的钢所需能量的六分之一。由于树木在生长时会从大气中吸收碳,因此木制建筑会通过存储这些物质而产生负排放。当一棵成熟的树木被砍伐时,可以种植一棵新的树木来替代它,从而捕获更多的碳。建筑物拆除后,旧的横梁和面板易于回收再利用为新的结构。对于旧建筑的改造以提高能源效率,木材是一种很好的隔热材料。软木窗框的隔热性能是相同厚度的普通钢的近400倍,是铝的等效材料的千倍以上。

emission 发出,射出;排放物

belch out 喷出

prefabricate 预制; 预制性

credential 提供证明

laminate 薄片制成的材料

beam 光线;波束

stuff

*noun* [U]

(事物名称不详、无关紧要或所指事物明显时用)东西,物品,玩意儿:

(泛指)活儿,话,念头,东西:

基本特征;特质;根本;基础;原料:

*verb*

填满;装满;塞满;灌满:

demolish 拆除;拆毁

panel 嵌板;嵌条

retrofit 翻新;改型

insulator 隔热/隔音材料

thickness 厚;厚度

aluminium 铝


2020/4/16

A race is on to build the world’s tallest fully wooden skyscraper. But such edifices are still uncommon. Industry fragmentation, vicious competition for contracts and low profit margins mean that most building firms have little money to invest in greener construction methods

beyond what regulation dictates.

建造世界上最高的全木摩天大楼的竞赛正在进行中。但是这样的建筑物仍然不常见。行业分散,合同竞争激烈以及低利润率意味着大多数建筑公司几乎没有钱投资于绿色建筑方法超出章程规定。

Governments can help nudge the industry to use more wood, particularly in the public sector—the construction industry’s biggest client.That would help wood-building specialists achieve greater scale and lower costs. Zero-carbon building regulations should be altered to take account of the emissions that are embodied in materials. This would favour wood as well as innovative ways of producing other materials.

政府可以帮助推动该行业使用更多的木材,尤其是在公共部门-建筑业的最大客户。这将有助于木材建筑专家实现更大的规模和更低的成本。零碳建筑法规应更改为考虑到材料中包含的排放。这将有利于木材以及生产其他材料的创新方式。

Construction codes could be tweaked to make building with wood easier. Here the direction of travel is wrong. Britain, for instance, is banning the use of timber on the outside of tall buildings after 72 people died in a tower fire in London in 2017. That is a nonsense. Grenfell Tower was covered in aluminium and plastic, not wood. Modern cross-laminated timber panels perform

better in fire tests than steel ones do.

可以对建筑规范进行调整,以使木材建造更加容易。这里的行进方向是错误的。例如,英国在2017年伦敦塔楼火灾中有72人死亡后,禁止在高层建筑的外部使用木材。这是胡说八道。 Grenfell塔楼用铝和塑料覆盖,而不是木头。现代交叉层压木板在火灾测试中比在钢铁测试中更好。

Carpentry alone will not bring the environmental cost of the world’s buildings into line. But using wood can do much more than is appreciated. The second little pig was not wrong, just before his time.

单单木工就无法使世界建筑物的环境成本变得合理。但是使用木材可以做的远不止于此。第二只小猪没错,只是远超他的时间。

edifice 大厦;宏伟建筑

vicious 狂暴的;残酷的

contract 合同;契约

margin 页边空白;白边

dictate 口述;指使,强行使用

nudge 轻推;轻碰

emission 发出;排出

embody 具体表现;体现;包括

tweak 扭,拧;稍微调整

timber 树木

nonsense 谬论;胡扯

laminate 薄片制成的材料

panel 镶条

Carpentry 木工

Last modification:April 21st, 2020 at 11:02 am
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